ISSN 1004-4140
CN 11-3017/P

2020 Vol. 29, No. 6

CT Theory
Polar1DMLP: A Coronary Artery Lumen Segmentation Network in CCTA
SHEN Yunpeng, GAO Yufeng, ZHANG Pinzheng, WU Wenxue, ZHOU Shoujun, LI Baosheng, ZHU Jian, CHEN Yang
2020, 29(6): 631-642. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.01
Abstract(338) PDF(65)
As a reliable and non-invasive medical imaging method,Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography(CCTA) has been used to detect the stenoses and other lesions in coronary arteries.However,effective and automated CCTA imaging examination is based on precise coronary arteries lumen segmentation technology.The purpose of this study was to investigate a model which can get the high-quality 3D surface model of the coronary lumen.Here we proposed the deep learning based 1D Polar1MLP model,which can make good use of the complicated information of the coronary tree centerline information.We trained and evaluated our model with the publicly available Coronary Artery Stenoses Detection and Quantification Evaluation Framework(Rotterdam) including 78 coronary segments with experts'manual contour labels of them,and got the result with a Dice similarity coefficient of 0.796,mean surface distance(MSD) of 0.169 mm in the validation dataset with 16 segments.The result of the study indicated that the 1DPolarMLP model with consideration of the CT gray-level information and centerline guideline information,can predict more precise and smoother 3D surface model of the coronary.
Imaging Characteristics of Pulmonary Nodules on Public Network Image Consultation During the Outbreak of New Coronavirus Pneumonia
CHEN Mailin, LIU Yuliang, QI Liping, SUN Yingshi
2020, 29(6): 643-650. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.02
Abstract(311) PDF(10)
Objective:To explore the situation of public network image consultation of pulmonary nodules during the outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia. Methods:During the epidemic period of new coronavirus pneumonia, open the network public interest image consultation for lung diseases, Gender image information of 83 lung patients was collected, including age, sex, and reasons for inquiring. The imaging findings and diagnosis of pulmonary nodules were analyzed and recorded, which reflected the characteristics of pulmonary nodules in the imaging of network during the new crown pneumonia. Result:During the novel coronavirus pneumonia, 73 patients with pulmonary nodules were asked for network image consultation. 87 pulmonary nodules in 71 patients met the requirements of the radiographic diagnosis. The average age of the patients was about 35 years old. The imaging findings showed benign pulmonary nodules accounted for 87.4%(76/87), the uncertain nodules accounted for 8%(7/87), and the malignant pulmonary nodules accounted for 4.6%(4/87), and corresponding treatment suggestions were given. Conclusion:The network image consultationa is a feasible method to diagnose pulmonary nodules during the outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia. The majority of the pulmonary nodules with network image consultation are benign, and it detected early lung cancer.
The Application of Natural Source Surface Wave Technology in Urban Engineering Investigation
LUAN Minglong, LIU Zeng, LIU Aiyou, WEI Dingyong, SUN Xuesong
2020, 29(6): 651-662. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.03
Abstract(319) PDF(22)
The natural source surface wave exploration technology has the characteristics of no source, large exploration depth and strong anti-interference ability. At present, the application of natural source surface wave method is mainly applied in the open suburban area, but less used in urban exploration. In this paper, we analyzed the application of natural source surface wave technology in urban engineering investigation, and the potential application in mid depth geophysical exploration, especially in urban earth object, such as the application of the rock contact zone detection of the engineering site of Beijing Winter Olympics, the fault fracture zone survey for the NS Water Diversion project the depth of overlying sediments for Drainage and Storage Gallery project of Beijing. We finally proposed that the nature source surface wave exploration technology plays an irreplaceable role in geophysical exploration of urban engineering and underground space.
Industrical CT
Nonlocal Total Nuclear Variation Based Method for Multi-energy CT Image Reconstruction
CHENG Kai, YANG Xueqin, SUN Yi
2020, 29(6): 663-676. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.04
Abstract(301) PDF(16)

Sparse view sampling and reducing current of X-ray source can effectively reduce radiation dose of multispectral CT,but it will make the projection data insufficient and noisy,leading to serious degeneration of the reconstructed images.To address this problem,we extend the traditional total nuclear variation(TNV) and propose the nonlocal total nuclear variation(NLTNV) regularization method by employing the low rank property of Jacobian matrix composed of nonlocal gradient vector.The proposed method uses only one regularization term to model three kinds of prior information(the structural similarity along energy dimension,the sparsity of image gradient and the spatial nonlocal self-similarity) to restore image details in low dose case,which can effectively alleviate the problem of using too many regularization parameters in reconstruction model,caused by employing multiple independent regularization terms to model different prior information of multispectral CT image.In addition,the reconstruction model based on NLTNV is a convex model,which guarantees the stability and convergence of the algorithm.The experimental results show that compared with the TNV regularization method,the proposed method can significantly improve the overall quality of the reconstructed images.

Study on the Microstructure of Ancient Pig Teeth Based on Micro-CT and Data-constrained Modeling
ZHANG Xufang, WANG Haipeng, LI Jun, MA Jie, LI Jianli, YANG Yushuang, HOU Liangliang, LI Li
2020, 29(6): 677-685. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.05
Abstract(344) PDF(13)
In this paper,the jaw bone and teeth of an ancient pig unearthed from a historic site were imaged using a micro-CT.The three-dimensional(3D) structure of the sample was quantitatively calculated based on data-constrained modeling(DCM).The multi-scale structure of the sample including those smaller than CT imaging resolution size was obtained.The multi-scale connectivity of pore and high X-ray absorption compositions in the sample were calculated respectively.The 3D distribution form of pore and high X-ray absorption compositions clusters was obtained.Compared with common image threshold segmentation method,DCM efficiently reduces the influence of partial volume effect on image analysis.The results of this study provide a data basis for the internal morphological measurement and structural analysis of archaeological samples.The method presented in this paper can be applied to the digital modeling and archiving of archaeological samples.
Medical Imaging and Image Processing
Analysis of Imaging Features of Tuberculosis of Lymph Nodes
HUANG Renjun, TENG Yue, ZHU Jingfen, LI Yonggang, YAO Feirong
2020, 29(6): 687-694. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.06
Objective:To explore the application value of the two methods by analyzing the CT and MRI features of lymph node tuberculosis and comparing with pathology. Methods:From January 2010 to December 2014, CT or MRI imaging data of 34 patients with lymph node tuberculosis confirmed by operation, puncture pathology or clinical were analyzed retrospectively, including growth pattern(fusion/non-fusion), edge(smooth not smooth), realm(clear/unclear), density and signal, enhancing mode(uniform/non-uniform/circular regular/annular irregular). Results:A total of 223 lymph nodes were involved in 34 patients, including 67.7% of cervical lymph nodes, 27.7% of mediastinal lymph nodes, 1.8% of hilar lymph nodes, 0.5% of intraperitoneal lymph nodes, and 1.8% of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Of all the involved lymph nodes, 8.5% showed fusion growth, 83.9% had regular morphology, 79.4% had smooth margin. 171 lesions were found on CT, with more equal density(53.8%), followed by low density(43.3%), and 98.5% of 66 lesions on MRI showed equal T1 long T2 signal. In all the lymph nodes observed by CT and MRI, in addition to 57% of the lesions with uniform density or signal, only12.6% accompanied by calcification, only 26.9% accompanied by partial necrosis, and 3.6% accompanied by calcification and necrosis at the same time; in 204 lymph nodes under enhanced scanning, 1% of the calcification was significant, no obvious enhancement was found, 38.7% of the lymph nodes were uniformly enhanced, and the low-density areas without enhancement were found in the patients with damage, 11.3% showed ring-shaped pattern 8.3% of the cases with ring irregular enhancement were in mediastinum(82.4%), and 5.9% of the cases showed septal enhancement in lymph nodes. Conclusion:CT and MRI have important diagnostic value for lymph node tuberculosis. Both of them can clearly show the location, shape and edge of the disease. MRI was more specific than CT in showing the edge and periphery of the lesion, especially after enhancement, and it was more sensitive to the involvement of capsule and adjacent tissues.
Analysis on Image Features of Tuberculous Sclerosis in Different Parts of the Skull in CT Scan
SUI Zhao, YAN Xiaohu, LI Ying
2020, 29(6): 695-701. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.07
Objective:To analyze the image features of tuberculous sclerosis(TSC) in different parts of the skull in CT scan. Method:The data of 16 children with craniocerebral TSC who were treated in this hospital from January 2016 to December 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical manifestations and CT imaging features of patients with craniocerebral TSC were analyzed. Results:Epilepsy, hypophrenia and skin damage were the main clinical manifestations of patients with TSC, in which epilepsy was the most typical, and the incidence was 93.75%. There was no statistically significant difference in the accuracy between CT examination and surgical pathology in the diagnosis of TSTC in different parts(P>0.05). CT scan of patients with TSC can be expressed with subependymal nodules, which were shown as strips-like, round or round-shaped calcified nodules, and were symmetrically distributed. More nodules were located in the lateral margin of thebody of lateral ventricle. The plain CT scan of 9 patients with brain parenchymal nodules showed that there were 5 cases with calcified nodules in the cortex and under cortex, which were in the form of sand grains. 1 cases showed punctate or patchy low-density nodular lesions with clear edge. CT scan of 4 patients showed changes in cerebral sulcus and cerebral cistern and showed cortical brain atrophy. CT plain scan showed a localized or generalized widening in the frontal parietal and temporal occipital sulcus. Ventricular dilatation was relatively rare, which mainly showed dilatation of lateral ventricle, and the forehead and occipital angle showed changes obviously like balloon. Conclusion:The main clinical features of patients with TSC are seizures, hypophrenia and skin damage. In CT scan, subventricular part is the most common nodule site in patients with TSC. Nodules in different sites can have characteristic CT features, but intracranial calcified nodule lesions are the most specific signs of TSC in CT plain scan, so CT can be used as one of the first choice for examination of intracranial TSC.
The Correlation between Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume Indexed to Body Surface Area and Atrial Fibrillation
DONG Xiangyu, FANG Tingsong, WANG Wenhui, YUAN Jianxiang, FENG Youli, LIANG Zhenhua, YANG Yanbin
2020, 29(6): 702-710. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.08
Objective:To explore the relationship between the 128 slice spiral CT-derived epicardial adipose tissue volume indexed to body surface area(EATVI) and atrial fibrillation(AF). Methods:Seventy-six patients with atrial fibrillation in our hospital were selected as the atrial fibrillation group, including 45 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 31 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation; 60 patients with sinus rhythm were also selected as the sinus rhythm group. 136 patients underwent cardiac coronary CTA imaging, measured EATV of all patients and calculated EATVI,The measurement data of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and persistent atrial fibrillation were further analyzed and statistically analyzed. Results:EATV value was significantly higher in AF group than in control group((138.54 ±25.79) mL vs(107.56 ±21.17) mL, P<0.001); EATVI value was significantly higher in AF group than in control group((72.54 ±23.21) vs(53.21 ±19.76), P<0.001). EATV((141.72 ±23.26) m L vs(136.23 ±19.76) m L) and EATVI((74.43 ±21.32) vs(70.54 ±19.82)) values tended to be higher in persistent AF group than those in paroxysmal AF group(P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that EATV and EATVI in patients with atrial fibrillation were significantly positively correlated(r=0.971, P<0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of EATVI for diagnosing atrial fibrillation was 0.893(95% CI:0.837~0.961). With 61.15 ml/m2 as the cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity of predicting atrial fibrillation were 91.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that EATVI(OR value:1.068; 95% CI:1.021 to 1.107) was an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Conclusion:128-slice spiral CT scan objectively and quantitatively measure EATV. EATV is significantly related to EATVI. The increase in EATVI is closely related to the occurrence of atrial fibrillation, but there is no significant difference in EATV and EATVI between patients with different types of atrial fibrillation.
Medical CT
Predictive Value of CT Angiography Combined with Blood Lipid Level in Diabetes Mellitus with Coronary Artery Disease
LI Sichun, LI Zhihui, ZHANG Yaping
2020, 29(6): 711-717. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.09
Objective:To explore the value of CT angiography(CTA) combined with blood lipid level in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary artery disease. Methods:The clinical data of 73 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) were retrospectively analyzed, including 38 patients with coronary artery disease(T2DM-CHD group) and 35 patients without coronary artery disease(T2DM group). All patients were routinely tested for blood lipid level, and coronary CTA was performed. Based on the results of CAG, the value of CTA combined with blood lipid level in predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with T2DM was analyzed. Result:TC, TG and LDL-C increased gradually with the occurrence and severity of coronary artery disease(P<0.05), while HDL-C decreased gradually(P<0.05). CTA had a high consistency with CAG in the diagnosis of coronary artery lesions in patients with T2DM(Kappa value=0.752, P=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of combined lipid and CTA examination were significantly higher than those of single lipid and CTA diagnosis, which were 92.31%, 95.15%, 95.34% and 96.37% respectively. Conclusion:CTA detection is helpful to predict the occurrence and severity of CHD, and combined with blood lipid level can improve the detection efficiency of coronary artery lesions in patients with T2DM.
Imaging Analysis of Pseudolesion Caused by Abnormal Gastric Venous Drainage
ZHANG Lingyun, YANG Shu, WANG Fuqiang
2020, 29(6): 718-725. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.10
Objective:To analyze the imaging features of focal sparing in fatty liver caused by abnormal gastric venous drainage and its formation mechanism. Methods:The imaging features of pseudolesion caused by abnormal gastric venous drainage in 15 cases were analyzed retrospectively. Results:All the 15 cases had clear boundary, and the diameter of abnormal gastric vein ranged from 1.5 to 6 mm. In 14 cases, the right gastric vein was used to drain the liver, among which 3 cases were located in segment Ⅰ, 4 cases were located in segment Ⅲ, 6 cases were located in segment Ⅳ dorsal, and 1 case occupied the left liver. The left gastric vein was draining in 1 case, and the focal sparing was located in segment Ⅲ. Among the 15 cases, 11 cases had the appearance of mass(5 cases were round and 6 cases were wedge-shaped). The 2 cases located in segment Ⅰ were almost identical with caudate lobe, and were accompanied by different degrees of caudate lobe hypertrophy. One case occupied the left liver; one case presented irregular "claw-like" changes along the draining vein. Conclusion:The formation of focal sparing in fatty liver is related to abnormal gastric venous drainage, the correct diagnosis can be made by fully grasping the imaging characteristics.
Predictive Value of Quantitative CT Detection of Pi10 in Treatment Response of COPD Patients
SUN Zhihong, LV Xiuyan, LIU Jinliang
2020, 29(6): 726-732. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.11
Abstract(242) PDF(11)
Objective:To determine the predictive factors for treatment responsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) at 1-year follow-up by performing quantitative analyses of CT scans. Methods:The subjects were 113 patients with COPD. Patients received a combination of inhaled long-acting beta-agonists and corticosteroids twice daily for 3 months and subsequently received medications according to the practicing clinician's decision. The emphysema index(EI), airtrapping indices(ATI), and hypothetical airway wtih internal perimeter of 10 mm(Pi10) were obtained with baseline CT scans. Clinically meaningful treatment response was defined as an absolute increase of ≥ 0.225 L in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) at the one-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the predictors of an increase in FEV1. Results:Treatment response was noted in 23 patients(20.4%). The mean FEV1 increase in responders was(0.35 ±0.11) L. On univariate analysis, the air-trapping index(ATI), ATI of the emphysematous area, and Pi10 parameter differed significantly between treatment responders and non-responders(all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the Pi10 was the only independent variable predictive of an FEV1 increase(OR:1.78; 95% CI:1.221~2.618, P=0.003). Conclusion:Pi10, an airway parameter measured by baseline quantitative chest CT, can be used to predict an increase in FEV1 of ≥ 0.225 L in patients with COPD during a 1 year follow-up period.
CT and MRI Diagnosis of Desmoid Type Fibromatoses
SHI Jian, MAO Mimi, FENG Feng
2020, 29(6): 733-741. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.12
Objective:To investigate the CT and MRI findings of the desmoid fibromatoses and evaluating it's diagnosis value. Methods:Clinical features and image characteristics of 16 patients with DF proved pathologically were analyzed retrospectively. Seven of the 16 cases underwent CT plain scan and enhancements and 7 cases underwent MRI plain scan and enhancements, of which 2 cases underwent both of them. Results:16 cases of DF were single, extra-abdominal type was seen in 7, abdominal wall type in 5 and intra-abdominal type in 4 tumors. Unclear border was seen in 14 cases and clear border in 2 cases. There were 13 cases with invasive growth and 3 cases with expansive growth. The lesion was parallel to the long axis of the muscle in 9 cases. CT manifestations:9 cases showed slightly lower density on plain scan, and no bleeding, necrosis and calcification were seen in lesions. The intratumoral ribbon-like enhancement was seen in 7 cases, and the progressive and continuous enhancement was seen in 6 cases with delayed scan. MRI manifestations:9 cases showed low signal intensity bands on lipid-suppressing T2 WI, and no bleeding or necrosis were seen. All cases showed obvious uneven enhancement and continuous enhancement with delayed scan. "Crab foot-like" infiltrated the surrounding tissue was seen in 5 cases, "fascial tail sign" in 4 cases. Conclusion:DF has certain characteristics on CT and MRI, and comprehensive analysis of them is of great value to its diagnosis and differential diagnosis. CT and MRI can clearly assess the margin and extent of DF, and help to make a plan before surgery.
The Value of CT Non-enhanced and Enhanced Image Texture Analysis in Differentiating Bladder Papilloma from Bladder Cancer
FAN Jian, GAO Bin, XIA Chunhua
2020, 29(6): 742-750. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.13

objective:To explore the value of non-enhanced CT images and enhanced CT image texture analysis in differentiating bladder papilloma from bladder cancer. Methods:64 pathologically confirmed cases of benign and malignant bladder tumors in the third Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2016 to January 2020 were retrospectively included, including 32 cases of benign lesions and 32 cases of malignant lesions. All patients underwent phase III dynamic enhanced CT scan, and their non-enhanced and arterial phase images were selected for study. MaZda texture analysis software was used to extract texture features of bladder lesions on CT non-enhanced and arterial phase images. Fisher method, the minimum classification error and the minimum average correlation coefficient method(POE + ACC) and the related information measurement method(MI) were selected to identification of benign and malignant lesions of bladder 10 optimal texture characteristic value, Using Mazda bl1 tools of principal component analysis(PCA) and linear discriminant analysis(LDA) and nonlinear discriminant analysis(NDA) to select the best texture feature analysis, The minimum misjudgment rate(R) for differentiating benign from malignant bladder tumors was calculated. ROC test was conducted for the optimal texture parameters corresponding to the minimum misjudgment rate, and the quantifiable parameters with the most auxiliary differential significance were selected for differential diagnosis of benign from malignant bladder tumors. Results:Through the study found that in differentiating benign and malignant tumors of bladder images of omics, based on the non-enhanced CT images MI + NDA combination of misjudgment rate is the lowest(1.56%), The best texture parameters selected were wavenhh_s-1, Horzl_Fraction, Horzl_ShrtREmp, Sigma and Variance, with AUC values corresponding to(0.932, 0.897, 0.902, 0.935 and 0.849, all P values less than 0.01), Combined with these five indicators, the AUC value was 0.985, specificity 96.87% and sensitivity 96.87%, with statistically significant differences. At the artery stage, POE + ACC + NDA combination had the lowest misjudgment rate(1.56%). The best selected texture parameters are:wavenhh_s-1, wavenhh_S-2, 135 dr_ShrtREmp, GrVariance, AUC corresponding to(0.916, 0.711, 0.797, 0.793, all P values less than 0.01) The AUC value combined with these four indicators was 0.916, the specificity was 84.37%, and the sensitivity was 81.25%. The difference was statistically significant. The AUC value of the combined non-enhanced and enhanced best texture parameter analysis was 0.997, Specificity was 93.75%, sensitivity was 100%, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion:The technique of texture analysis using CT non-enhanced and enhanced image has certain application value in the differentiation of bladder papilloma and bladder cancer.

Research Progress of Energy Spectrum CT of Colorectal Cancer
XUE Ting, FENG Feng
2020, 29(6): 751-758. doi: 10.15953/j.1004-4140.2020.29.06.14
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive tract, and early diagnosis is essential. Dual-energy CT uses material characterization and material decomposition to depict lesions from the surrounding environment and identify benign and malignant cancer, which is expected to make up for the defects of conventional imaging techniques. To further improve the detection ability and diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. This article reviews the research progress of dual-source spectroscopy CT in colorectal cancer.